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    电子商务是什么

    电子商务是什么

    电子商务是什么
    电子商务通常是指是在全球各地广泛的商业贸易活动中,在因特网开放的网络环境下,基于浏览器/服 务器应用方式,买卖双方不谋面地进行各种商贸活动,实现消费者的网上购物、商户之间的网上交易和在 线电子支付以及各种商务活动、交易活动、金融活动和相关的综合服务活动的一?#20013;?#22411;的商业运营模式。 电子商务是利用微电脑技术和网络通讯技术进行的商务活动。各国政府、学者、企业界人士根据自己所处 的地位和对电子商务参与的角度和程度的不同,给出了许多不同的定义。 侠义上讲,电子商务(Electronic Commerce 简称 EC)是指:通过使用互联网等电子工具(这些工具包 括电报、电话、广播、电视、传真、计算机、计算机网络、移动通信等)在全球范围内进行的商务贸易活 动。是以计算机网络为基础所进行的各种商务活动,包括商?#27867;?#26381;务的提供者、广告商、消费者、中介商 等有关各方行为的总和。人们一般理解的电子商务是指狭义上的电子商务。 广义上讲,电子商务一?#35797;?#33258;于 Electronic Business,就是通过电子手段进行的商业事务活动。通 过使用互联网等电子工具,使公司内部、供应商、客户和合作伙伴之间,利用电子业务共享信息,实现企 业间业务流程的电子化,配合企?#30340;?#37096;的电子化生产管理系?#24120;?#25552;高企业的生产、库存、流通和?#24335;?#31561;各 个环节的效率 电子商务是利用计算机技术、网络技术和远程通信技术,实现电子化、数字化和网络化,商务化的整 个商务过程;是以商务活动为主体,以计算机网络为基础,以电子化方式为手段,在法律许可范围内所进 行的商务活动交易过程;是运用数?#20013;?#24687;技术,对企业的各项活动进行?#20013;?#20248;化的过程;是指交易当事人 或参与人利用现代信息技术和计算机网络(包括互联网、移动网络和其他信息网络)所进行的各类商业活 动,包括货物交易、服务交易和知识产权交易

    电子商务整体分为几类:
    1、推广营销:包括各类的关键词、邮件、广告、博客、论坛等等,这类营销以?#25918;?#25512;广为主,不进行实际 的销售,但是为销售做好了打前站的工作铺垫; 2、经营销售:如淘宝(B2C)阿里巴巴 (B2B)慧聪 当当等等,不管批发还是零售?#38469;?#20110;经营销售网络 营销的范畴; 3、线上线下网络营销:电子商务实?#36866;?#20110;商务活动的一种,只是它跨越了地域和时间的限制,将商务活动 更加扩大化,商务速度和模式更容易进行。 电子商务的其他模式还有很多,比如策划营销、网络展示营销等等,需要我们不断探讨和创新。 电子商务一般来讲包含了 b2b b2c c2c 等多种模式。Internet 上的电子商务可以分为三个方面:信息服 务、交易和支付。主要内容包括:电子商情广告;电子选购和交易、电子交易凭证的交换;电子支付与结 算以及售后的网上服务等。主要交易类型有企业与个人的交易(B to C 方式)和企业之间的交易(B to B 方式) 两种。 参与电子商务的实体有四类:顾客(个人消费者或企业集团)、商户(包括销售商、制造商、储运商)、 银行(包括发卡行、收单行)及?#29616;?#20013;心。 电子商务是 Internet 爆炸式发展的直接产物, 是网络技术应用的全新发展方向。Internet 本身所具有的 开放性、全球性、?#32479;?#26412;、高效率的特点,也成为电子商务的内在特征,并使得电子商务大大超越了作为 一?#20013;?#30340;贸易形式所具有的价值,它不仅会?#35851;?#20225;业本身的生产、经营、管理活动,而?#21307;?#24433;响到整个社 会的经济运行与结构。 电子商务指的是利用简单、快捷、?#32479;?#26412;的电子通讯方式,买卖双方不谋面地进行各种商贸活动。电 子商务可以通过多种电子通讯方式来完成。简单的,比如你通过打电话或发传真的方式来与客户进行商贸 活动,似乎?#37096;?#20197;称作为电子商务;但是,现在人们所探讨的电子商务主要是以 EDI(电子数据交换)和 INTERNET 来完成的。尤其是随着 INTERNET 技术的日益成熟,电子商务真正的发展将是建立在 INTERNET 技术上的。所以也有人把电子商务简称为 IC(INTERNET COMMERCE)。 从贸易活动的角度分析,电子商务可以在多个环节实现,由此?#37096;?#20197;将电子商务分为两个层次,?#31995;?#23618; 次的电子商务如电子商情、电子贸易、电子合同等;最完整的也是最高级的电子商务应该是利用 INTENET 网络能够进行全部的贸易活动,即在网上将信息流、商流、?#24335;?#27969;和部分的物流完整地实现,也就是说,

    你可以从寻找客户开始,一直?#35282;?#35848;、订货、在线付(收)款、开据电子发票以至到电子报关、电子纳税 等通过 INTERNET 一气呵成。 要实现完整的电子商务还会涉及到很多方面,除了买家、卖家外,还要有银行或金融机构、政府机构、 ?#29616;?#26426;构、配送中心等机构的加入才行。由于参与电子商务中的各方在物理上是互不谋面的,因此整个电 子商务过程并不是物理世界商务活动的翻版,网上银行、在线电子支付等条件和数据?#29992;堋?#30005;子签名等技 术在电子商务中发挥着重要的不可或缺的作用。

    电子商务的流程:
    商务流程对于电子商务系统是十?#31181;?#35201;的。商务流程是指企业在具体从事一个商贸交易过程中的实?#20160;?#20316; 步骤和处理过程。 一、电子商务的通用交易过程 1.交易前的准备 2. 交易磋商 3. 签订合同与办理?#20013;?4. 合同的履行和支付过程 二、个人消费者的购物过程 三、 企业—企业电子商务交易过程

    电子商务的作用:
    电子商务?#21830;?#20379;网上交易和管理等全过程的服务,因此它具有广告宣传、咨询洽谈、网上订购、网上 支付、电子帐户、服务传递、意见征询、交易管理等各项功能。 (1)广告宣传:电子商务可凭借企业的 Web 服务器和客户的浏览,在 Internet 上发播各类商业信息。客 户可借助网上的检索工具(Search)迅速地?#19994;?#25152;需商品信息,而商家可利用网?#29616;?#39029;(HomePage)和电 子邮件(E-mail)在全球范围内作广告宣传。与以往的各类广告相比,网上的广告成本最为低廉,而给顾客的 信息量却最为丰富。 (2)咨询洽谈:电子商务可借助非实时的电子邮件(E-mail),新闻组(NewsGroup)和实时的讨论组(chat) 来了解市场和商品信息、 洽谈交易事务, 如有进一步的需求, 还可用网上的白板会议(WhiteboardConference) 来交流?#35789;?#30340;图形信息。网上的咨询和洽?#25913;?#36229;越人们面对面洽谈的限制、提供多种方便的异地交谈形式。 (3)网上订购:电子商务可借助 Web 中的邮件交互传送实现网上的订购。网上的订购通常都是在产?#26041;?绍的页面上提供十分友好的订购提示信息和订购交互格式框。当客户填完订购单后,通常系统会回复确认 信息单来保证订购信息的收悉。订购信息?#37096;?#37319;用?#29992;?#30340;方式使客户和商家的商业信息不会泄漏。 (4)网?#29616;?#20184;:电子商务要成为一个完整的过程。网?#29616;?#20184;是重要的环节。客户和商家之间可采用信用卡 帐号进行支付。在网?#29616;?#25509;采用电子支付手段将可省略交易中很多人员的开销。网?#29616;?#20184;将需要更为可靠 的信息传输安全性控制以防止欺骗、窃听、冒用等非法行为。 (5)电子帐户:网上的支付必需要有电子金融来支持,即银行或信用卡公司及保险公司等金融单位要为金 融服务提供网上操作的服务。而电子帐户管理是其基本的组成部分。 (6)服务传递:对于已付了款的客户应将其订购的货物尽快地传递到他们的手中。而?#34892;?#36135;物在本地,有 些货物在异地,电子邮件将能在网络中进行物流的调配。而最适合在网?#29616;?#25509;传递的货物是信息产品 (7)意见征询:电子商务能十分方便地采用网页上的“选择”、“填空”等格式文件?#35789;?#38598;用户对销售服务的 反馈意见。这样使企业的市场运营能形成一个封闭的回路。客户的反馈意见不仅能提高售后服务的水平, 更使企业获得改进产品、发现市场的商业机会。 (8)交易管理:整个交易的管理将涉及到人、财、物多个方面,企业和企业、企业和客户及企?#30340;?#37096;等各 方面的协调和管理。因此,交易管理是涉及商务活动全过程的管理。

    电子商务具有的优势:
    1. 电子商务将传统的商务流程电子化、数字化,?#29615;?#38754;以电子流代替了实物流,可以大?#32771;?#23569;人力、 物力,?#26723;?#20102;成本;另?#29615;?#38754;突破了时间和空间的限制,使得交易活动可以在任何时间、任何地点进行,从 而大大提高了效率。 2. 电子商务所具有的开放性和全球性的特点,为企业创造了更多的贸易机会。 3. 电子商务使企业可以以相近的成本进入全球电子化市场,使得中小企业有可能拥有和大企业一样的信

    息?#35797;矗?#25552;高了中小企业的竞争能力。 4. 电子商务重新定义了传统的流通模式,减少了中间环节,使得生产者和消费者的直接交易成为可能, 从而在一定程度上?#35851;?#20102;整个社会经济运行的方式。 5. 电子商务?#29615;?#38754;破除了时空的壁垒,另?#29615;?#38754;又提供了丰富的信息?#35797;矗?#20026;各种社会经济要素的重新 组合提供了更多的可能,这将影响到社会的经济布局和结构。 6. 互动性:通过互联网,商家之间可以直接交流,谈判,签合同,消费者?#37096;?#20197;把自己的反馈建议?#20174;?#21040;企业 或商家的网站,而企业或者商?#20197;?#35201;根据消费者的反馈及时调查产品种类及服务品质,做到良性互动.

    What is e-commerce usually refers to a wide range of worldwide commercial and trade activities in the Internet an open network environment, based on browser / server application mode, buyers and sellers are not met for various business activities to achieve consumer online shopping, online transactions between merchants and online electronic payment and a variety of business activities, trading activities, financial activities and activities related to integrated services of a new business model. E-commerce is the use of micro-computer technology and network communication technology for business activities. Governments, academics, business people according to their status and e-commerce in which the angle and degree of participation in different given many different definitions. Chivalrous sense, e-commerce (Electronic Commerce abbreviated EC) means: through the use of the Internet and other electronic tools (These tools include the telegraph, telephone, radio, television, fax, computer, computer network, mobile communications, etc.) carried out on a global scale business and trade activities. Is a computer network based on a variety of business activities conducted, including commodity and service providers, advertisers, consumers, intermediaries and other parties concerned acts combined. It is generally understood that e-commerce refers to the narrow sense of the e-commerce. Broadly speaking, the term derived from e-commerce Electronic Business, is through electronic means commercial transaction activity. By using the Internet and other electronic tools that enable the company, suppliers, customers and partners, the use of e-business to share information, to achieve inter-enterprise business processes electronically, with internal electronic production management system, improve production , inventory, distribution and capital efficiency in all aspects of e-commerce is the use of computer technology, network technology and telecommunications technology, electronic, digital and network technology, the entire business process-oriented business; based business activities as the main computer network-based, electronically as a means to the extent permitted by law business activities undertaken transaction; is the use of digital information technology, business activities ongoing optimization process; refers to the parties to the transaction or participant use Modern information technology and computer networks (including the Internet, mobile networks and other information networks) carried out various business activities, including transactions in goods, services and intellectual property transactions overall e-commerce transactions are divided into several categories: 1, Promotion Marketing: including the class keyword, mail, advertising, blog, forum, etc., the main type of marketing to promote the brand, not the actual sale, but the sales do the play before the station's work foreshadowing; 2, business sales: such as Taobao (B2C ) Alibaba (B2B) HC Dangdang, etc., regardless of the wholesale or retail business sales network marketing are all areas; 3, online and offline network marketing: E-commerce a reality of business activity, but it spans geographical and time restriction, business activities more expansion, speed and pattern of business easier. There are many other modes of e-commerce, such as planning and marketing, network marketing, display and so on, we need to continue to explore and innovate.

    E-commerce in general contains a b2b b2c c2c other models. E-commerce on the Internet can be divided into three areas: information services, transactions and payments. The main contents include: Electronic Business Advertising; electronic purchasing and trading, electronic trading exchange certificate; electronic payment and settlement as well as the sale of online services. Main types of transactions are business and personal transactions (B to C mode) and business transactions between (B to B mode) two kinds. There are four types of entities involved in electronic commerce: customers (individual consumer or business group), businesses (including distributors, manufacturers, transportation providers), banks (including the issuer, acquirer) and certification center. Explosive growth of Internet commerce is the direct product of a new network technology development direction. Internet itself has an open, global, low-cost, high-efficiency characteristics, but also the inherent characteristics of electronic commerce and so far beyond e-commerce as a new form of trade has the value, it will not only change enterprise itself, production, operation, management activities, and will affect the entire structure of society and the economy. E-commerce refers to the use of simple, fast, low-cost means of electronic communication, both buyers and sellers are not met for various business activities. E-commerce through a variety of electronic means of communication to complete. Simple, such as you via phone or fax to conduct business activities with clients, seems to be referred to as e-commerce; But now people are mainly discussed in e-commerce EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) and INTERNET to complete The. Especially with the INTERNET technology matures, the real development of e-commerce will be built on the INTERNET technology. So it was also referred to as e-commerce IC (INTERNET COMMERCE). From the point of view of trade, e-commerce can be achieved in a number of areas, which can also be divided into two levels of e-commerce, e-commerce, such as lower levels of Electronic Business, e-commerce, electronic contracts, etc.; also the most complete The most advanced e-commerce should be able to use the network for all INTENET trading activities, namely the Internet will be information flow, business flow, capital flow and logistics part of a complete implementation, that is, you can find customers, has been to negotiate, order, online payment (income) shall, open, according to electronic invoicing as well as to electronic declaration, electronic tax payment go through the INTERNET. To achieve a complete e-commerce also involves many aspects, in addition to buyers, sellers, but also there are banks or financial institutions, government agencies, certification bodies, distribution centers and other institutions to join the job. Since the parties involved in electronic commerce is physically not met each other, so the entire e-commerce process is not a replica of the physical world, business, online banking, online electronic payment and other conditions and data encryption, electronic signature technology in e-commerce plays an important indispensable role. E-commerce processes: business processes for e-commerce system is very important. Business processes is an enterprise engaged in a commercial transaction in the specific process of practical steps and processes. An e-commerce transaction process a generic. Transaction preparation before 2. Transactions negotiated three contracts to work with the formalities 4 performance of the contract and payment process two, three individual consumers shopping process, the enterprise - enterprise e-commerce transactions The role of e-commerce: e-commerce to provide online transactions and manage the whole process of service, so it has advertising, negotiate, online ordering, online payment, electronic accounts, service delivery, consultation, transaction management and other functions. (1) Advertising: E-commerce by virtue of the enterprise Web server and the customer's browser, sent over the Internet broadcast various business information. Customers can take advantage of online search tools (Search) to quickly find the desired product information, and businesses can take advantage of the Internet home page (HomePage) and e-mail (E-mail) worldwide for advertising. Compared with the conventional types of advertising, online advertising the most cost and the amount of information to customers, but most abundant. (2) consultation to discuss: E-commerce can take advantage of non-real-time e-mail (E-mail), newsgroups

    (NewsGroup) and real-time discussion groups (chat) to understand the market and commodity information, discuss trade matters, if further demands , can also be used online whiteboard session (WhiteboardConference) to exchange real-time graphical information. Online consultation and negotiation can beat people face to face to discuss the restrictions, offers a variety of convenient forms of offsite conversation. (3) Order: E-commerce can interact with the Web, e-mail sent to achieve online ordering. Online ordering is usually described in the product pages provide a very friendly message ordering and order Interchange Format box. When customers fill out the order form, it is often the system will return confirmation message ordering information sheets to ensure receipt. Ordering information also can be encrypted manner so that customers and merchants business information will not leak. (4) online payment: e-commerce to become a complete process. Online payment is the important part. Can be used between the customer and the merchant account for credit card payments. Directly online using electronic means of payment transaction will be omitted in many personnel overhead. Online payment will require more reliable transmission of information security controls to prevent spoofing, eavesdropping, fraudulent and other illegal acts. (5) Electronic Account: Online payment must have e-finance to support that banks or credit card companies and insurance companies and other financial institutions to provide financial services to operate online services. The electronic account management is the basic component. (6) Service Delivery: For the money paid for the goods ordered by the customer should be passed as soon as possible into their hands. And some goods locally, some goods in off-site, e-mail will be able to carry out the logistics in the network deployment. The most suitable for online goods are delivered directly to information products (7) Comment: E-commerce can be very convenient to use on the page "choice", "fill in the blanks" and other format files to collect user feedback for sales and service. This makes the enterprise market operators to form a closed loop. Customer feedback can not only improve the level of service, but also enable enterprises to obtain improved products, business opportunities found in the market. (8) Transaction Management: The entire transaction will involve the management of human, financial, and material aspects, enterprises and businesses, enterprises and customers, and other aspects of internal coordination and management. Therefore, transaction management is involved in the management of the whole process of business activities. E-commerce advantages: 1. Traditional e-commerce business processes electronic, digital, on the one hand to the flow of electrons instead of the real logistics, you can greatly reduce the human and material resources, reduce costs; hand broke through time and space restricted such trading activity can at any time, any place, thereby greatly improving efficiency. (2) E-commerce has the openness and global characteristics, in order to create more trade opportunities. 3 E-commerce enables businesses to enter the global cost of similar electronic market, enabling SMEs and large enterprises are likely to have the same information resources, improve the competitiveness of SMEs. 4 E-commerce has redefined the traditional distribution model, reduce intermediate links, so that producers and consumers to deal directly as possible, which to some extent changed the whole social economy operates. 5 e-commerce on the one hand break the barriers of time and space, on the other hand provides a wealth of information resources for the various socio-economic elements of reorganization provides more likely that this will affect the social and economic layout and structure 6 interaction: through the Internet, you can communicate directly between businesses, negotiation, contract, consumers can put their feedback to the enterprise or recommendations reflect the merchant's site, and the corporate or business will have timely investigation based on consumer feedback product range and service quality,

    achieve positive interaction.


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